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Prof. Dr. Klaudia Brix
Prof. Dr.
Professor of Cell Biology
School of Science
Life Sciences & Chemistry

Constructor University Bremen gGmbH  
Campus Ring 1 | 28759 Bremen | Germany

+49 421 200-3249
kbrix [at]
Research II, Room 107
Research Interests: 

cilia +++ GPCRs +++ proteases of the thyroid gland (incl. cancer) +++ proteases of the central nervous system +++ proteases of the gastro-intestinal tract (incl. cancer) +++ plant-derived bioactive substances +++ quantitative cell biology for tissue profiling


2021 - 2025   COST-Action CA20113 ProteoCure, EU, Member of the Management Committee for Germany
2018, 2020    Teacher of the Year, Focus Area Health, Jacobs University Bremen
2018              Chair of Gordon Research Conference "Protein Processing, Trafficking, and Secretion", July 15-20, 2018, New London, NH, USA      
2012-2019     Co-Coordinator of the SPP 1629 "THYROID TRANS ACT - Translation of Thyroid Hormone Actions beyond Classical Concepts"
2012              Chair of Gordon Research Conference "Proteolytic Enzymes & Their Inhibitors", June 17-22, 2012, Il Ciocco, Lucca (Barga), Italy 
2007-2009     Vice-President of International Proteolysis Society
Advisory Boards:
CeTICS, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paolo, Brazil, 2019 - present
UoN, Nepal, 2019 - present
Frey-Werle Stiftung, München, Germany, 2019 - present
Research and Teaching Positions: 
since 2006     Full Professor of Cell Biology, Jacobs University Bremen (formerly: IUB), Bremen, Germany
2010-2012     Vice-Speaker of the Molecular Life Science Research Center, Jacobs University Bremen
2002-2005     Associate Professor of Cell Biology, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (then, IUB), Germany
1998-2002     Assistant Professor (“Oberassistentin”) of Cell Biology (Univ. Bonn)
1998-2001     Acting Professor of Cell Biology and Vice-Chairperson (Univ. Bonn)
1989-1996     “Wissenschaftliche Assistentin” of Cell Biology (Univ. Bonn)
1989              Research Scientist (Univ. Düsseldorf)
1987-1988     Research Scientist in the Focus Project “Cytoskeleton”, DFG (Univ. Bonn)
Teaching Experience:
since Fall 2002 Lectures and Practical Courses in the Undergraduate Majors "BCCB - Biochemistry and Cell Biology", "MCCB - Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology", and "MedNat - Medical Natural Sciences"; BCCB Program Coordinator from Fall 2006 - Spring 2014; BCCB Study Program Chair, Spring 2020, Fall 2021 - present
since Fall 2002 Supervision of PhD-Students; Co-Supervision of PhD-Students; Host of visiting Students and Members-in-Training from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland; external PhD-examiner for Universities in Africa, Australia and Europe; Supervision of MSc-Students
1998-2002        Independent Lecturer, Venia legendi in “Cell Biology”, Lectures, Practical Courses, Laboratory Courses, and Seminars for Students of Biology (Univ. Bonn)



Funded Projects: 


 European Thyroid Association (ETA) -    European Thyroid Association, 2020 – 2021, ETA Project COVID-19 grant 2020


    DFG, COVID-19 Focus Funding, 2020 - 2021


           HAORI Stiftung Bremen, 2020 – 2021, Neuronal cilia as potential viral entry sites



Proteases: Structure and Function, Klaudia Brix & Walter Stöcker (Eds.), Springer-Verlag Wien 2013., ISBN 978-3-7091-0884-0, ISBN 978-3-7091-0885-7 (eBook)., doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-0885-7
  • Kerp, H., K. Renko, G.S. Hönes, K. Brix, J. Köhrle, L.C. Moeller, and D. Führer (2021) Age-dependent response to T4 overtreatment and recovery on systemic and organ level. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 67, 161-172.
  • Qatato, M., V. Venugopalan, A. Al-Hashimi, M. Rehders, A.D. Valentine, Z. Hein, U. Dallto, S. Springer, and K. Brix (2021) Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Trafficking to Cilia of Thyroid Epithelial Cells. Cells 10, 1518.
  • Venugopalan, V., Al-Hashimi, A., Weber, J., Rehders, M., Qatato, M., Wirth, E.K., Schweizer, U., Heuer, H., Verrey, F., and K. Brix (2021b) The Amino Acid Transporter Mct10/Tat1 Is Important to Maintain the TSH Receptor at Its Canonical Basolateral Localization and Assures Regular Turnover of Thyroid Follicle Cells in Male Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, 5776.
  • Kunath, A., J. Weiner, K. Krause, M. Rehders, A. Pejkovska, M. Gericke, M.L. Biniossek, S. Dommel, M. Kern, A. Ribas-Latre, O. Schilling, K. Brix, M. Stumvoll, N. Klöting, and J.T. Heiker / M. Blüher (2021) Role of Kallikrein 7 in Body Weight and Fat Mass Regulation. Biomedicines 9, 31.
  • Ziros, P.G., C.O. Renaud, D.V. Chartoumpekis, M. Bongiovanni, I.G. Habeos, X.-H. Liao, S. Refetoff, P.A. Kopp, K. Brix, and G.P. Sykiotis (2021) Mice hypomorphic for Keap1, a negative regulator of the Nrf2 antioxidant response, show age-dependent diffuse goiter with elevated thyrotropin levels. Thyroid 31, 23-35.
  • Venugopalan, V., A. Al-Hashimi, M. Rehders, J. Golchert, V. Reinecke, G. Homuth, U. Völker, M. Manirajah, A. Touzani, J. Weber, M.S. Bogyo, F. Verrey, E.K. Wirth, U. Schweizer, H. Heuer, J. Kirstein, and K. Brix (2021a) The Thyroid Hormone Transporter Mct8 Restricts Cathepsin-Mediated Thyroglobulin Processing in Male Mice through Thyroid Auto-Regulatory Mechanisms that Encompass Autophagy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, 462.
  • Al-Hashimi, A., V. Venugopalan, M. Rehders, N. Sereesongsaeng, Z. Hein, S. Springer, E. Weber, D. Führer, M.S. Bogyo, C.J. Scott, R.E. Burden, and K. Brix (2020b) Procathepsin V Is Secreted in a TSH Regulated Manner from Human Thyroid Epithelial Cells and Is Accessible to an Activity-Based Probe. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9140.
  • Al-Hashimi, A., V. Venugopalan, N. Sereesongsaeng, S. Tedelind, A.M. Pinzaru, Z. Hein, S. Springer, E. Weber, D. Führer, C.J. Scott, R.E. Burden, and K. Brix (2020a) Significance of nuclear cathepsin V in normal thyroid epithelial and carcinoma cells. BBA – Molecular Cell Research 1867, 118846.
  • Falkowski, K., E. Bielecka, I.B. Thøgersen, O. Bochenska, K. Płaza, M. Kalinska, L. Sasiadek, M. Magoch, A. Pecak, M. Wisniewska, N. Gruba, M. Wysocka, A. Wojtysiak, M. Brzezinska-Bodal, K. Sychowska, A. Pejkovska, M. Rehders, G. Butler, C.M. Overall, K. Brix, G. Dubin, A. Lesner, A. Kozik, J.J. Enghild, J. Potempa, and T. Kantyka (2020) Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 14 Activates Zymogens of Membrane Type Matrix Metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) — A CleavEx Based Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21(12), 4383.
  • Dauth, S., H. Rakov, R.F. Sirbulescu, I. Ilies, J. Weber, B. Batbajar Dugershaw, D. Braun, M. Rehders, E.K. Wirth, D. Führer, U. Schweizer, and K. Brix (2020) Function of cathepsin K in the central nervous system of male mice is independent of its role in the thyroid gland. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 40, 695-710.
  • Brix, K., J. Szumska, J. Weber, M. Qatato, V. Venugopalan, A. Al-Hashimi, and M. Rehders (2020) Auto-regulation of the thyroid gland beyond classical pathways. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 128(6-07), 437-445.
  • Biebermann, H. / K. Brix / D. Führer (2020) Seven Years of Active Thyroid Hormone Research in Germany: Thyroid Hormone Action beyond Classical Concepts. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 128(6-07), 355-357.
  • Szumska, J., Z. Batool, A. Al-Hashimi / V. Venugopalan / V. Skripnik, N. Schaschke, M. Bogyo, and K. Brix (2019) Treatment of rat thyrocytes in vitro with cathepsin B and L inhibitors results in disruption of primary cilia leading to redistribution of the trace amine associated receptor 1 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochimie 166, 270-285.
  • Gruba, N. / E. Bielecka, M. Wysocka, A. Wojtysiak, M. Brzezińska-Bodal, K. Sychowska, M. Kalińska, M. Magoch, A. Pęcak, K. Falkowski, M. Wiśniewska, L. Sąsiadek, K. Płaza, E. Kroll, A. Pejkovska, M. Rehders, K. Brix, G. Dubin, T. Kantyka, and J. Potempa / A. Lesner (2019) Development of chemical tools to monitor human kallikrein 13 (KLK13) activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20(7). pii: E1557.
  • Engels, K. / H. Rakov, G.S. Hönes, K. Brix, J. Köhrle, D. Zwanziger, L.C. Moeller, and D. Führer (2019) Aging alters phenotypic traits of thyroid dysfunction in male mice with divergent effects on complex systems but preserved thyroid hormone action in target organs. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. pii: glz040.
  • Brix, K. (2018). Host cell proteases: cathepsins. In: Activation of Viruses by Host Proteases, edited by Eva Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Wolfgang Garten, and Hans Dieter Klenk. Springer-Verlag
  • Qatato, M. / J. Szumska, V. Skripnik, E. Rijntjes, J. Köhrle, and K. Brix (2018). Canonical TSH Regulation of Cathepsin-Mediated Thyroglobulin Processing in the Thyroid Gland of Male Mice Requires Taar1 Expression. Front. Pharmacol. 9:221.
  • Fischer, J., G. Kleinau, C. Rutz, D. Zwanziger, N. Khajavi, A. Müller, M. Rehders, K. Brix, C.L. Worth, D. Führer, H. Krude, B. Wiesner, R. Schülein / H. Biebermann (2017). Evidence of G-protein coupled receptor and substrate transporter heteromerization at a single molecule level. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
  • Oettmeier, C., K. Brix, and H.-G. Döbereiner (2017). Topical Review: Physarum polycephalum – a new take on a classic model system. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, no. 41.
  • Rakov, H., K. Engels, G.S. Hönes, K. Brix, J. Köhrle, L.C. Moeller, D. Zwanziger, D. Führer (2017). Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in aged mice. Biology of Sex Differences 8, 38.
  • Said, I.H., A. Rezk, I. Hussain, A. Grimbs, A. Shrestha, H. Schepker, K. Brix, M.S. Ullrich, and N. Kuhnert (2017). Metabolome comparison of bioactive and inactive Rhododendron extracts and identification of an antibacterial cannabinoid(s) from Rhododendron collettianum. Phytochem. Anal. 28, 454–464.
  • Grimbs, A., A. Shrestha, A.S.D. Rezk, S. Grimbs, I. Hakeem Said, H. Schepker, M.-T. Hütt, D.C. Albach, K. Brix, N. Kuhnert, and M.S. Ullrich (2017). Bioactivity in Rhododendron: A systemic analysis of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and their phylogenetic and phytochemical origins. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, Article 551.
  • Weber, J., J. McInnes, C. Kizilirmak, M. Rehders, M. Qatato, E.K. Wirth, U. Schweizer, F. Verrey, H. Heuer, and K. Brix (2017). Interdependence of thyroglobulin processing and thyroid hormone export in the mouse thyroid gland. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 96, 440-456.
  • Tamhane, T., R. Illukkumbura, S. Lu, G.M. Maelandsmo, M.H. Haugen, and K. Brix (2016). Nuclear cathepsin L activity is required for cell cycle progression of colorectal carcinoma cells. Biochimie 122, 208-218
  • Rezk, A., A. Al-Hashimi, W. John, H. Schepker, M.S. Ullrich, and K. Brix (2015). Assessment of cytotoxicity exerted by leaf extracts from plants of the genus Rhododendron towards epidermal keratinocytes and intestine epithelial cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 15:364
  • Szumska, J., M. Qatato, M. Rehders, D. Führer, H. Biebermann, D.K. Grandy, J. Köhrle, and K. Brix (2015). Trace amine-associated receptor 1 localization at the apical plasma membrane domain of Fisher rat thyroid epithelial cells is confined to cilia. Eur. Thyroid J. 4 (Suppl. 1), 30-41
  • Führer, D. / K. Brix / H. Biebermann (2015). Understanding the healthy thyroid state in 2015. Eur. Thyroid J. 4 (Suppl. 1), 1-8
  • Brix, K., J. McInnes, A. Al-Hashimi, M. Rehders, T. Tamhane, M.H. Haugen (2015). Proteolysis mediated by cysteine cathepsins and legumain - recent advances and cell biological challenges. Protoplasma 252, 755-774
  • Haugen, M.H., K. Boye, J.M. Nesland, S.J. Pettersen, E.V. Egeland, T. Tamhane, K. Brix, G.M. Maelandsmo, and K. Flatmark (2015).  High expression of the cysteine proteinase legumain in colorectal cancer - Implications for therapeutic targeting. Eur. J. Cancer 51, 9-17
  • Haugen, M.H., H.T. Johansen, S.J. Pettersen, R. Solberg, K. Brix, K. Flatmark, and G.M. Maelandsmo (2013). Nuclear legumain activity in colorectal cancer. PLoS One 8(1), e52980
  • Dauth, S., R.F. Sirbulescu, S. Jordans, M. Rehders, L. Avena, J. Oswald, A. Lerchl, P. Saftig, and K. Brix (2011). Cathepsin K deficiency in mice induces structural and metabolic changes in the cenetral nervous system that are associated with learning and memory deficits. BMC Neuroscience 12, 74. 
  • Jordans, S., S. Jenko-Kokalj, N. M. Kühl, S. Tedelind, W. Sendt, D. Brömme, D. Turk, and K. Brix (2009). Monitoring compartment-specific substrate cleavage by cathepsins B, K, L, and S at physiological pH and redox conditions. BMC Biochemstry 10, 23.
  • Mayer, K., A. Vreemann, H. Qu, and K. Brix (2009). Release of endo-lysosomal cathepsins B, D, and L from IEC6 cells in a cell culture model mimicking intestinal manipulation. Biol. Chem. 390, 471-480.
  • Brix, K., A. Dunkhorst, K. Mayer, and S. Jordans (2008). Cysteine cathepsins: Cellular roadmap to different functions. Biochimie 90, 194-207
  • Büth, H., P.L. Buttigieg, R. Ostafe, M. Rehders, S.R. Dannenmann, N. Schaschke, H.-J. Stark, P. Boukamp, and K. Brix (2007). Cathepsin B is essential for regeneration of scratch-wounded normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 86, 747-761
  • Brix, K., and S. Jordans (2005). News & Views: Watching proteases in action. Nature Chem. Biol. 1, 186-187.
  • Friedrichs, B., C. Tepel, Th. Reinheckel, J. Deussing, K. von Figura, V. Herzog, Ch. Peters, P. Saftig, and K. Brix (2003). Thyroid functions of mouse cathepsins B, K, and L. J. Clin. Invest. 111, 1733-1745.
  • Linke, M., V. Herzog, and K. Brix (2002). Trafficking of lysosomal cathepsin B – green fluorescent protein to the surface of thyroid epithelial cells involves the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. J. Cell Sci. 115, 4877-4889.
  • Brix, K., M. Linke, C. Tepel, and V. Herzog (2001). Cysteine proteinases mediate extracellular prohormone processing in the thyroid. Review. Biol. Chem. 382, 717-725.
  • Tepel, C., D. Brömme, V. Herzog, and K. Brix (2000). Cathepsin K in thyroid epithelial cells: Sequence, localization, and possible function in extracellular proteolysis of thyroglobulin. J. Cell Sci. 113, 4487-4498.
  • Brix, K., P. Lemansky, and V. Herzog (1996). Evidence for extracellularly acting cathepsins mediating thyroid hormone liberation in thyroid epithelial cells. Endocrinology 137, 1963-1974.
  • Brix, K., and V. Herzog (1994). Extrathyroidal release of thyroid hormones from thyroglobulin by J774 mouse macrophages. J. Clin. Invest. 93, 1388-1396.
  • Stockem, W., and K. Brix (1994). Analysis of microfilament organization and contractile activities in Physarum. Int. Rev. Cytol. 149, 145-215.


Other Professional Activities: 
Memberships in Scientific Societies
ASBMB        American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
DGE             Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinology; therein: Sektion Schilddrüse
DGZ             German Society for Cell Biology
DHV             Deutscher Hochschulverband     
ESE             European Society for Endocrinology
ETA              European Thyroid Association
IPS               International Proteolysis Society
Academic Committees and Responsibilities
since 2003     Scientific Head and Coordinator of the Reference Center for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy at Jacobs University Bremen
since 2002     Biological Safety Officer, Jacobs University Bremen
2004-2014     DHV-Representative
2002-2004     Member of the Academic Integrity Committee, International University Bremen
2000-2001     Member of the Advisory Board of the Representative for Equal Opportunity, Univ. Bonn